Then too... [with Aniko Csirmaz]


We explore the historical relations of different adverbs with connections to the temporal realm, including elements corresponding to English then, again, various senses of still, and interactions with additive and scalar particles, focussing on Hungarian, Hindi, and Nepali. Connections between adverbs like THEN and AGAIN and STILL in Hindi/Nepali and Hungarian suggest an underlying generalised ordering adverbial, for which we provide a formalisation. Of particular interest is the appearance of additive particles in the formation of a number of temporal (and non-temporal) adverbials, found in Hungarian, Hindi, and Nepali, where we find the form used for ‘concessive’ STILL is essentially composed of ‘again’+additive particle. Hindi bhī and Nepali pani are additive/scalar particles often meaning something like ‘also, even’. Capturing the interrelations between ordering adverbials in languages like Hindi/Nepali and Hungarian is facilitated by the positing of a generalised ordering adverbial. Here, for instance, again and then are identical, save for the position of focus and thus the resulting focus alternatives. This also accounts for the apparent homophony of THEN and AGAIn in Nepali pheri, Hindi phir, which can rather be thought of as a type of polysemy.

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
Benjamin Slade
Associate Professor of Linguistics